Arrowhead illustration
Books

Books

Find books among the collection Granger has written about arrowhead typology.

Authentication

Authentication

Curious about items in your collection? Find out details based on Granger's extensive research and experience.

Stephen Granger

Newly Named Points

Check out some newly named points with detailed descriptions and illustrations.

Stephen Granger

About

Find out more about Stephen Granger, his background, and how to contact him.

Certificate of Authenticity

Arrowhead Authentication

Be very careful with the artifacts you are buying. It would be safe to say that more than 90 percent of everything I see is reproduction. If it seems too good to be true, it probably is.

With 40 books written on arrowhead typology, you can rest easy that you are getting one of the best opinions out there. My fee is $25 per item. I do offer a discount of $5 per item on 10 or more items sent. There is a $10 charge for anything found not to be authentic.

E-mail me to discuss items in your collection.

Newly Named Points

Ebarb Bluff

This point is hereby being named by Stephen G. Granger for the many examples that were found on the Ebarb family farm by Pat, Billy, and George Ebarb. This farm now is underwater at Toledo Bend Reservoir in Sabine Parish, Louisiana.

Preform: Lanceolate, having convex sides and straight to slightly convex basal edge.

General Description: This small point has straight to convex edges and a rectangular stem. Shoulders are weak and angular. The stem may be straight to slightly expanded, basal edges straight to slightly convex. The stem edge is sometimes ground. Flaking is usually random, but on some examples, it is parallel transverse. Examples as small as 5/8" have been found.

Age and Culture: This point was made by the Cody Complex, and is contemporary with the larger Scottsbluff. Early Archaic dating between 7,500 B.C. and 6,500 B.C.

Distribution: The Ebarb Bluff has been found in Oklahoma, Arkansas, Texas, and Louisiana. It is expected to be found anywhere Scottsbluff points are found.

Comments: Despite popular belief that the Ebarb Bluff was made for ceremonial purposes, it was indeed made to be used. Many examples are little more than worn-out specimens, having only a base left from resharpening. The Ebarb farm had naturally occuring salt and hot springs. With the marshy conditions existing at that time, perhaps the Cody people needed a small, light atlati point that would carry farther, to kill both large and small game alike. One might also theorize that this is the end of the Cody Complex in that area, and the smaller point had to be made because the Megafauna had died out with smaller game taking its place. For now, we can only speculate, as there are no concrete dates to support these theories.

Granger Knife

The Granger Knife is hereby being named Stephen G. Granger for examples found at the Crowfield Site, Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada, by D. Brian Deller and C.J. Ellis.

General Description: This large knife form is random, or parallel transverse flaked having a stem which is ground. Examples that have been resharpened have a beveled cutting edge, "Fig. B."

Age and Culture: Late Paleo knife form dating in the 8,750 B.C. to 8,400 B.C. range.

Distribution: Presently known to be from the Province of Ontario, Canada, and ranging from eastern New York to northern Ohio and Indiana.

Comments: Fig. A., is one fo the heat-fractured blades found in the Crowfield Site cremation. Figures B and C were found in Situ with three Crowfield points, two were broken. This type should be found anywhere Crowfield points are found.

Haberland Knife

The Haberland Knife is hereby being named by Stephen G. Granger for Arnim Haberland, who was instrumental in acquiring examples found in the province of Alberta, Canada, in situ with the Alberta point.

General Description: The large knife form is random, or parallel transversed flaked. The lateral basal sides are lightly ground. Examples that have been resharpened, "Figure A," exhibit fine secondary flaking which is typical of the Cody Complex who made them.

Age and Culture: Early Archaic, expected to date in the 7,500 B.C. to 6,500 B.C. range.

Distribution: The Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, parts of Montana, North and South Dakota, Wyoming, Nebraska, and Colorado. They should be found anywhere Alberta points are found.

Comments: The Haberland Knife is made by the Cody Complex, but it is only found on sites that contain the Alberta point; whereas, the Cody Knife and the Red River Knife are found on sites that contain the Scottsbluff point, also made by the Cody Complex.

Tamra

The Tamra point was named by Stephen G. Granger for an example found by Tamra and Johnny Parnell, near Egypt, Arkansas.

General Description: This is an extremely rare, large to medium size knife form that has a triangular blade with convex, straight, or recurved edges. Much life the Scottsbluff point, all four faces were resharpened together, which resulted in the fine edgework, but did not create beveled edges. The stem ranges from short to long, and may be expanded. The basal edge may be straight or convex. Stem edges are ground and may be sharp, rounded, or "eared." Shoulders are prominently double barbed. The largest example known, "figure A," is 4 5/16 inches.

Age and Culture: Early Archaic, expected to date around 7,500 B.C.

Distribution: Very limited, having only been found in Arkansas and Missouri.

Comments: The Sociotechnic Hardin is an early relative of the Scottsbluff, having comparable flaking and resharpening process. It differs from the Hardin with the addition of an extra set of barbs. The double barbs allowed the maker to slide a hollow handle, presumably a small animal bone that was thick walled and had a small diameter, onto the narrow stem. The smaller and lower set of barbs acted as a "stop" for the handle. It could then be tied together without the risk of damaging or breaking the primary, or larger set of barbs. This would have allowed for the full use of the lateral blade edge as a knife without the risk of the handle being torqued into one of the primary barbs and breaking it. "Figure B" in the illustration has been resharpened to the point of being discarded or being used as a hafted scraper.

Stephen Granger

About Stephen Granger

Stephen G. Granger, was taught arrowhead typology by Gregory H. Perino. Granger, like Perino, is considered the foremost expert on North American artifacts.

Steve's fascination with the past and his innate ability to understand the lithics he was finding, led him into the field of Artifact Typology. With 25+ years as a student of Greg Perino, Granger began his role as an Archaeological Consultant.

Stephen is perhaps best known for his role in the three books that he helped Greg Perino write on North American Projectile Typology. Stephen aided Perino in the three book series, and in return, Stephen got the copyrights to all three books. Stephen also owns Points & Barbs Press.

Stephen has written 41 books, with 19 being available on Amazon.

E-mail Stephen.

Books by Stephen Granger

All books listed are available at Amazon.com and published through Points and Barbs Press.

A-Z Arrow Point Identification

A-Z Arrow Point Identification

  • amazon button
  • 218 pages
  • 1st edition (2016)
  • ISBN-10: 099628379X
  • ISBN-13: 978-0996283793
  • Product Dimensions: 11 x 8.5 x 1 inches
Arizona Arrowhead Typology

Arizona Arrowhead Typology

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  • 146 pages
  • 1st edition (2011)
  • ISBN-10: 0984988300
  • ISBN-13: 978-0984988303
  • Product Dimensions: 11 x 8.5 x 0.8 inches
Arkansas Arrowhead Typology

Arkansas Arrowhead Typology

  • amazon button
  • 191 pages
  • 1st edition (2012)
  • ISBN-10: 0984988335
  • ISBN-13: 978-0984988334
  • Product Dimensions: 11 x 8.5 x 0.8 inches
Colorado Arrowhead Typology

Colorado Arrowhead Typology

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  • 72 pages
  • 1st edition (2015)
  • ISBN-10: 0996283781
  • ISBN-13: 978-0996283786
  • Product Dimensions: 11 x 8.5 x 0.5 inches
Florida Arrowhead Typology

Florida Arrowhead Typology

  • amazon button
  • 91 pages
  • 1st edition (2013)
  • ISBN-10: 0984988351
  • ISBN-13: 978-0984988358
  • Product Dimensions: 11 x 8.5 x 0.5 inches
Georgia book cover

Georgia Arrowhead Typology

  • amazon button
  • 113 pages
  • 1st edition (2014)
  • ISBN-10: 0996283706
  • ISBN-13: 978-0996283700
  • Product Dimensions: 11 x 8.5 x 0.5 inches
Illinois book cover

Illinois Arrowhead Typology

  • amazon button
  • 165 pages
  • 1st edition (2013)
  • ISBN-10: 098498836X
  • ISBN-13: 978-0984988365
  • Product Dimensions: 11 x 8.5 x 0.8 inches
Indiana book cover

Indiana Arrowhead Typology

  • amazon button
  • 107 pages
  • 1st edition (2013)
  • ISBN-10: 0984988378
  • ISBN-13: 978-0984988372
  • Product Dimensions: 11 x 8.5 x 0.5 inches
Iowa book cover

Iowa Arrowhead Typology

  • amazon button
  • 83 pages
  • 1st edition (2013)
  • ISBN-10: 0984988394
  • ISBN-13: 978-0984988396
  • Product Dimensions: 11 x 8.5 x 0.5 inches
Kansas book cover

Kansas Arrowhead Typology

  • amazon button
  • 91 pages
  • 1st edition (2015)
  • ISBN-10: 0996283773
  • ISBN-13: 978-0996283779
  • Product Dimensions: 11 x 8.5 x 0.5 inches
Kentucky book cover

Kentucky Arrowhead Typology

  • amazon button
  • 119 pages
  • 1st edition (2013)
  • ISBN-10: 0984988386
  • ISBN-13: 978-0984988389
  • Product Dimensions: 11 x 8.5 x 0.5 inches
Louisiana book cover

Louisiana Arrowhead Typology

  • amazon button
  • 115 pages
  • 1st edition (2011)
  • ISBN-10: 0984988319
  • ISBN-13: 978-0984988310
  • Product Dimensions: 11 x 8.5 x 0.5 inches
Missouri book cover

Missouri Arrowhead Typology

  • amazon button
  • 173 pages
  • 1st edition (2012)
  • ISBN-10: 0984988343
  • ISBN-13: 978-0984988341
  • Product Dimensions: 11 x 8.5 x 0.8 inches
book cover

Montana Arrowhead Typology

  • amazon button
  • 77 pages
  • 1st edition (2015)
  • ISBN-10: 0996283757
  • ISBN-13: 978-0996283755
  • Product Dimensions: 11 x 8.5 x 0.5 inches
book cover

New Mexico Arrowhead Typology

  • amazon button
  • 94 pages
  • 1st edition (2014)
  • ISBN-10: 0996283722
  • ISBN-13: 978-0996283724
  • Product Dimensions: 11 x 8.5 x 0.5 inches
book cover

Oklahoma Arrowhead Typology

  • amazon button
  • 192 pages
  • 1st edition (2014)
  • ISBN-10: 0996283714
  • ISBN-13: 978-0996283717
  • Product Dimensions: 11 x 8.5 x 0.8 inches
book cover

Oregon Arrowhead Typology

  • amazon button
  • 65 pages
  • 1st edition (2015)
  • ISBN-10: 0996283749
  • ISBN-13: 978-0996283748
  • Product Dimensions: 11 x 8.5 x 0.5 inches
book cover

Paleo Arrowheads of North America

  • amazon button
  • 63 pages
  • 1st edition (2016)
  • ISBN-10: 0996283730
  • ISBN-13: 978-0996283731
  • Product Dimensions: 11 x 8.5 x 0.5 inches
Texas Book Cover

Texas Arrowhead Typology

  • amazon button
  • 240 pages
  • 1st edition (2011)
  • ISBN-10: 0984988327
  • ISBN-13: 978-0984988327
  • Product Dimensions: 11 x 8.5 x 1 inches